Virtual, naturalistic art had dissembled the occupation, using art to conceal art; modernism misused art to demand work to art. The limitations that constitute the job of painting-the field surface, the appearance of the connectedness, the properties of the pigment-were burnt by the Old Masters as perverse factors that could be recognized exclusive implicitly or indirectly. Under Modernism these duplicate limitations came to be regarded as optimistic factors, and were purported openly.